Rotsvas Trading (t/a Stone Sensation) exceeds the specifications and standards set by the CMA (Concrete Manufacturers Association) for the manufacturing of concrete products . Stone Sensation manufactures its products subject to the following key features and requirements for driveway paving described below :
- Using the best available aggregates, – all sand and stone complies with the standards set out in the requirements of SANS 1083.
- Only Sephaku Cement, that meets the requirements of SABS197-1, is used with the manufacturing of Stone Sensation products.
- All pigments used complies with the requirements of standard BS1014.
TRANSPORT (Product Handling)
- All products are cured for as long as possible before transportation.
- Prior to the products being loaded, the material destined is inspected to ensure that only paving/cladding of satisfactory quality are loaded.
- Products are offloaded either by hand or by means of a crane
- The products should be handled with care. Products can be moved closer to the specific area of installation by various means. But please remember that whether you use a wheelbarrow or a bakkie – NEVER LOAD/OFFLOAD BY THROWING THE PAVER ONTO THE VEHICLE OR WHEELBARROW OR BY TIPPING THE PRODUCT!
SHAPE, COLOUR AND APPEARANCE
- Paving should be free of cracks and chips. The occurrence of chips and cracks on an order is acceptable given it does not exceed 5% of the total quantity ordered. The client should always consider adding an additional 10% to the quantity measured to compensate for cutting accidental damage during handling.
- Paving is not as smooth as a glass surface. Ruggedness is part of our products’ character
- The colour of the product may vary within three tones of the colour chosen. The reason for this is that the aggregates used may influence the final colour due to a variation in colour of the material being mined.
- With the manufacture of a simulated stone product, it is normal to have minor variations in size as all products are made manually. This is acceptable within the following parameters :
DIMENSION TOLERANCES (mm)
Length 3 mm
Width 3 mm
Height 3 – 5 mm
- All Stone Sensation products are manufactured to a minimum strength of 25 Mpa.
- Stone Sensation tests their products periodically to ensure products remain above the required strength.
- Stone Sensation products have an average water absorption average of 8% which is in accordance with the SANS 1058: 2007-10-02
- Efflorescence is caused by water entering the paving material dissolving salts/minerals that could be present in the material the bricks are made of. As water evaporates, the dissolved salts raise to the surface leaving white deposits on the surface. Dry brushing is the first method of removing efflorescence. If this is not effective, water washing with or without pressure can be used. If this is not effective chemical cleaning is the last alternative. Chemical cleaning involves acid treatment to dissolve the white deposits. Acid should be diluted with water on a 1 : 10 ratio, one part acid for ten parts water. Surfaces must be rinsed well after chemical application.
- Efflorescence is a natural occurrence and cannot be entirely prevented. It can take up to two years for it to completely subside.
- Pinholes occur when air tiny air bubbles are entrapped during the mixing of the concrete. While products are vibrated to release the air bubbles, there is a limit on the time the products can be exposed to vibration before causing negative effects.
- Stone Sensation products are manufactured to have a uniform smooth face on various textures. Pinholes would be accepted if it is less than 10 holes per product and smaller than 2 mm in diameter
One of the most important factors when installing paving on pedestrian areas and residential driveways is the site preparation and proper compaction using the correct procedures.
UTILITY SERVICE INSPECTION
- Before any work starts it is imperative to know about all underground pipes and cables, their exact location and depth
- In order to prepare a good sub base care must be taken that the material is free of compostable material and can drain well. Heavy soils such as clay or turf must be removed and replaced. The proper depth of excavation and preparation of base material is between 250-330mm Paving must always slope away from permanent structures, preparation for this sloping should considered while preparing the sub base. A minimum gradient of 20 should be provided for.
PAVER BASE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS
- Base material should be a granular type that compacts easily
- Compaction must be done in layers of 100-150mm
- If the subgrade is clay, compaction must be done with a roller or rammer
- If the subgrade consists of sandy soils, a vibrate plate is often more sufficient for compaction
- Each layer might require several passes with the compacting apparatus
- Compaction density should be at least 95% Proctor density (per ASTM D 698)
- Weak or saturated soils may not reach the desired levels of density and may have to be stabilized or require drainage to remove excess water
EDGING AND KERBING
- It is suggested that the border or edge of a driveway must be laid in concrete of at least 60-80mm thick
- On steep driveways always consult with your engineer on the required anchor beams to be cast
- When kerbing is installed it is necessary to install the kerbing first, leave the kerbs for at least 3 days before compacting the paving
- Before spreading the setting bed it is recommended to install a layer of plastic or a similar material to prevent weeds from growing through the paving.
- After compaction of the sub-base, the setting bed must be spread
- The setting bed consist of either crusher or river sand
- The setting bed must also be leveled out and must be between 25-50mm thick
INSTALLING THE PAVERS
- Pavers are to be laid in the desired pattern
- Always use a builders line as the variances in some of the products may cause the lines to go un-even
- Pavers should be taken from several pallets or bundles at a time to assure an even colour mix
- All products without spacers should be fitted butt-joint, meaning that theoretically there should no space, but it is however advised that a gap of at least 2-3mm is left between pavers for grouting
- Grouting is a key factor to a lasting driveway as it absorbs movement of up to 0.8%, reducing chips and cracking of paving
- It is however expected that some of the paving might chip after installation. This is acceptable according to SABS 0164, but it may not exceed 5% of the total quantity
COMPACTING THE PAVING AND GROUTING
- After the paving is laid it needs to be compacted to ensure the paving is set in the setting bed and to retain a solid uniform structure
- River sand must be brushed over (with a broom) the entire area leaving a thick layer on top of the paving
- The paving may now be compacted with a vibrating plate
- ALWAYS use a rubber mat as the compactor will otherwise chip the products due to a high definition texture found on ALL Stone Sensation products
- After compacting the paving, the sand should be brushed over (using a broom) the whole area again to fill all the unfilled gaps
- Repeat the process until all the gaps between the pavers are filled
- Sweep off all the excess sand and wash the paving with clean water
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
- Paving can be sealed with various sealants, but it is not necessary. Sealing the driveway is up to the customer. Keep in mind that once the paving is sealed, it might change the colour of the paving. Sealing also creates a maintenance concern as it would be required to reseal it in approximately five years depending on traffic crossing it
- Oil stains on an unsealed driveway are very hard to completely wash off as it penetrates concrete
- If white powder stains occurs, refer to the remedy under “efflorescence”